Oh So Sweet

corn 768 blog r2

Lower left photo: Go to the Food Network for classic and some quick and easy corn on the cob reinventions. (l to r) Bacon, sweet & spicy, Japanese, classic & Mexican. Yum! 


Nothing signifies the height of summer like biting into a sweet, succulent (and if possible – fresh picked from the field) ear of corn. It’s tough not to get excited when traveling outside the city and seeing farm after farm of fresh corn, or even better, stopping at a roadside stand filled with piles of cut corn and fresh vegetables. So, in KHT Style, here are just some things to know about corn.

While the normal method of eating corn on the cob is to dunk it in boiling water, slather it with butter and top it with a little salt, some farmers insist fresh is best. Next time, grab an ear, peel back the husk and bite away – you’ll be amazed at the fresh flavor.

Other than eating corn raw or boiled, some people like to soak the corn in water for a bit and put them on the grill. When the husk turns brown, it’s done. You can also grill corn with the husk removed, creating a golden brown on the kernels. Some people even fry corn while still on the cob, which caramelizes it and give it a smooth flavor. The easiest way is to put corn, still in the husk, into the microwave for three minutes, pull back the husk, roll it in butter or margarine, and top it with coarse or table salt.

When cooking corn, don’t add salt to the boiling water, because salt toughens the kernels. As an alternative to butter, rub with wedges of lemon or lime. Instead of salt, sprinkle with cayenne, dill or other spices and herbs. You can also add corn kernels to rice and bean dishes, soups, salads, even pancakes. Frozen and canned are just as nutritious as fresh—just watch out for extra sodium and high-fat sauces.

Sweet corn is technically a grain, not a vegetable, and has undergone radical transformation since the Supersweet hybrid was introduced in the late 70’s. Sugar in corn starts to turn to starch as soon as the ear is separated from the stalk, losing nearly half of its sweetness within 12 hours of picking if not chilled. Hybrids have changed that, extending shelf life and allowing corn to be shipped longer distances.

Corn is a high-carbohydrate food with lots of fiber, some protein, B vitamins (e.g., thiamin and folate), a little vitamin C and a handful of minerals. Treating corn with lime (as in tortillas) makes certain amino acids and niacin more available to the body. Yellow corn contains some beta carotene and is rich in lutein and zeaxanthin—which may help keep eyes healthy and possibly protect against cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. Corn contains more calories than most veggies: 175 in a cup.

The typical harvest time for sweet corn in Northeast Ohio is mid-July through early September. Corn typically takes 60-80 days to produce a crop. Many farms will plant multiple crops to take advantage of the weather and growing season. Corn harvested later in the season is usually better than the early ears, as the ears are bigger and at its sweetest point.

Corn is planted in multiple waves throughout the season and is continuously harvested. Ideal growing conditions include temperatures between 68 and 73 degrees – but corn can survive temperatures as low as 32 and as high as 112 for short periods. A steady supply of moisture is essential. This year, due to the lack of rain in late June and early July, the old adage of “knee high by the Fourth of July” didn’t quite make it. To stay on track, a good long soaking is needed.

Corn stalks grow seven to 10 feet tall and each cob has an average of 800 kernels, with one strand of silk for each kernel. Each cob has an even number of rows. Popular bicolor corn is typically sweeter than single color varieties, which can be coarser and chewier.

Ohio is the sixth largest producer of sweet corn in the U.S., and the U.S. is ranked first worldwide. The most popular variety is yellow and white, often referred to as “honey and cream”. The taste of corn, much like a good wine, changes its taste almost every day, depending on the amount of rain, temperature and the soil. Some farmers give the corn a cold water bath as soon as they are harvested to capture the flavor and sustain freshness during delivery.

Growing techniques vary. Some farmers use black, peat-based “muck soil”, much like a drained swamp, to retain moisture and limit irrigation, while others use more traditional planting and watering.

The best way to tell if corn is fresh is not to pull back the husk, but to look at the stalk end. If the cut is brown and dry, it is past its prime. The cut should still be moist and white, or just a little brown on the edges. When you bring it home, place it in the refrigerator where it will retain most of its flavor for up to five days.

The best way to preserve that summertime flavor all year round is by freezing. A good method is to toss the ears of corn into boiling water for a few minutes and then plunge them into the sink filled with cold water. Remove the kernels with a knife, and then turn it over and run the flat end blade down the cob to squeeze out the juice – it makes a difference – add some butter and seal in freezer bags. Another good trick is to place the cob in the center of a bunt cake pan, and scrape the kernels off with a knife. The pan catches the falling kernels and don’t go rolling all over the counter.

Special thanks to Christine Klecic of Mimi newspaper and University of Berkley Wellness Center for insights in helping compose this post.




Boy It’s Hot!

sun 768 blog

With the mercury reaching uncomfortable highs these next few weeks, your “heating and cooling experts” at Kowalski Heat Treating have some handy tips – things we’ve learned along with tips from our friends at Real Simple magazine. As kids, the heat never really bothered us – we used to just turn on the sprinkler, blast each other with the hose or jump in the pool. There was nothing better than making a great big whirlpool with my brothers and sisters!   But, now that we’re a bit older, somewhat wiser, and not as carefree, here are some good tips to try as you work to beat back the heat.

Wick while you work. To keep yourself cooler when computing, plug a Kensington FlyFan ($10, amazon.com) into a USB port on your machine. The fan’s flexible neck lets you direct the breeze to your sweaty brow.

Cool Your Neck, Wrists and Behind Your Knees. Using a cool washcloth, or one stored in the fridge, gently place a cool cloth in these areas. It will help cool you down much quicker.

Take A Cold Shower. Obvious, but not many people do this. Cool down and then put on loose fitting, light weight clothing.

 Try a Desert Trick. When the air outside is dry and cooler than the air inside, usually at night and in the early morning, hang a damp sheet in an open window. “That’s what we do here in Death Valley,” says Dale Housley, a ranger at Death Valley National Park. Incoming breezes are cooled by the evaporating water.

Cool Smoothies, Lemonade and Ice Water. Make yourself a fresh smoothie from frozen fruit, ice and juice. Or better yet, try an ice cold glass of water or lemonade. Pack it full of ice cubes, and drink it slowly.

Avoid Direct Sun and Exercise Carefully. Wear a light colored hat, (this is especially important to those of us who are follicley challenged!) stay in the shade, and take it easy. If you must exercise, or do yardwork, take breaks often, and hydrate with cool water. Your body will love the liquids and turn on its sweat machine. Give yourself time to recover before heading back out.

Block the Sun. Closing curtains and blinds (ideally with sun-deflecting white on the window side) can reduce the amount of heat that passes into your home by as much as 45 percent, according to the U.S. Department of Energy.

Make a Makeshift Air Conditioner. If it’s hot but not humid, place a shallow bowl of ice in front of a fan and enjoy the breeze. As the ice melts, then evaporates, it will cool you off.

Give your A/C Some TLC. Clean or replace the filter in room and central air conditioners about once a month during the summer. If you have central air-conditioning, have the ducts checked for leaks, which can reduce a system’s efficiency by as much as 15 percent, according to the U.S. Department of Energy. Seal any cracks between a window unit and the frame with caulking or a sealant strip.

Close the Damper. While running any kind of air conditioner, shut your fireplace damper. An open one “pulls hot air into your house instead of sucking it out,” says Tommy Spoto, a master chimney sweep at Chimney Chap, in Copiague, New York. “This is called flow reversal.”

Close Everything Else, too. Whether the air conditioner is on or off, keep windows and doors shut if the temperature outside is more than 77 degrees Fahrenheit (most people start to sweat at 78). Whenever the outside air is hotter than the inside air, opening a window invites heat to creep in.

Spritz Yourself. Keep a spray bottle in the refrigerator, and when the going gets hot, give yourself a good squirt. “It’s all about thermal regulation,” says John Lehnhardt, an elephant expert at Disney’s Animal Kingdom, in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. “As the water evaporates, it cools you.” While elephants wet their ears first by blasting water from their trunks, humans should begin with their wrists to quickly cool down the blood flowing through their veins.

Fan Strategically. If the day’s heat is trapped inside your home, try a little ventilation at night or when the temperature drops below 77. A window fan can help; the trick is to face the blades outside to suck warm air out of the house and pull cooler air in. “Kind of surprising,” says Bill Nye, the Science Guy, a scientist, engineer, comedian, author, and inventor. “Having a fan blowing in is a good idea―but it’s not as effective as one that’s blowing out.”

Let Your Computer Take a Nap. Set it to go into low-power “sleep” mode if you are away from it for more than 10 minutes and it will give off less heat. When you’re finished for the day, shut the machine down completely. Despite what some IT guy may have told you years ago, properly shutting down and restarting modern-day computers won’t put undue strain on the hardware. And forget about working with a computer on your lap―it’s too darn hot. That’s why they changed the name from laptop to notebook.

For a full list, visit realsimple.com



That Backyard “PIA” Job – Grilling the Perfect Burger

burger 768 blog

If you’re like me, there’s nothing like standing over the grill and working your magic – especially when trying to cook the “perfect” burger.  While I think I have a pretty good approach, based of course on my years of expertise in “heat transfer and cooling”, I thought I’d check with the food experts and pass along some really useful tips.  Listed below is a little science and a little art, courtesy of Epicurean and Fine Cooking, to help you become a certified burger grill master.  Give ‘em a try. Remember, it’s not summer without great burgers!

How do I Choose the Right Ground Beef for the Best-Tasting Burgers? – The most important factor influencing the flavor and texture of ground beef is what part of the animal the meat comes from. Meat is muscle, and as it’s exercised, its fibers expand, making the muscle larger, redder, and more flavorful. Since grinding negates toughness, the best ground beef comes from the more exercised and flavorful part of the steer. The cuts most commonly ground into hamburger are chuck, bottom round, and sirloin. Chuck is the most flavorful because it’s from the well-exercised shoulder of the animal. Ground sirloin is less flavorful than chuck, but its meat has the smoothest mouth-feel because it is the least exercised. Bottom round falls in the middle; it’s more flavorful than sirloin and smoother in texture than chuck.

We recommend chuck for burgers, not only because it has the deepest flavor, but also because it’s a less desirable cut to sell for roasts or steaks, so it usually costs less than either ground round or sirloin. As for fat content, we think a ratio of 15 to 20 percent fat to 80 to 85 percent lean offers the best combination of flavor and mouth-feel.

How Can I Make and Cook a Juicy Burger? – There are three keys to a juicy burger. Meat is composed of protein and fat. The protein parts are full of moisture (lean beef is about 60 percent water). Grinding meat pulverizes the muscle fibers, which allows the moisture inside to run out. When the absorptive pad in the bottom of a package of commercially ground beef is soaked, it’s because it’s saturated with juice that had been in the meat.  If you want a juicy hamburger, it helps to restore some of that lost moisture. The easiest way is to add water or some other liquid to the burger mixture. We’ve found that 2 to 3 tablespoons of ice-cold water mixed into a pound of ground beef greatly increases the juiciness of grilled burgers.  Another trick is to all a little Worchester sauce to your mixture.

How you handle your burgers on the grill is the second key. As burgers cook, the protein in the meat contracts, forcing out moisture. To maintain juiciness, handle burgers as little as possible during grilling. Every turn or prod forces out more juice, which is why you should never “press” a cooking burger with the back of a spatula in an attempt to speed up the grilling time. It doesn’t make heat transfer into the meat any faster, but it does increase moisture loss by wringing the meat fibers as if they were a saturated sponge.

Finally, fat content also contributes to the perception of moisture in burgers, not because the burger has more juice, but because we do; the presence of fat in the mouth triggers saliva flow. That’s why ground beef with a fat content of less than 10 percent is unpalatably dry when cooked, beef with 10 to 15 percent fat content tastes lean and juicy, meat with a 15 to 20 percent fat content tastes rich and beefy, and burgers with more than 20 percent fat have very full flavor but a fatty mouth-feel.

Is There a Trick To Forming The Perfect Patty? – To craft burgers that hold up on the grill and stay nice and tender, you’ll want to keep your ground beef chilled until right before you form your burgers (and keep them chilled until you’re ready to grill them). Chilled beef patties hold up better on the grill and will form a nice crust while still staying juicy inside. One more tip: Be gentle when forming your patties and avoid overworking the meat, which will end up making a tough burger.  Shape your patty a bit larger than your buns, so when done cooking they have a nice fit and eye appeal.

How Do I Keep Them From Looking Like Little Baseballs When Done? – Your burgers might start out like perfectly shaped patties, but as they cook, they tend to shrink up and turn a bit round instead. Luckily, there’s an easy fix. Before cooking the burgers, make a small indentation in the center of each patty with your thumb, for the simple reason of the patty rising more in the center than on the side as it cooks. The dimple doesn’t have to look like a sinkhole—a cute little shallow indent in the middle of the patty is more than enough to keep the burger from ballooning.

When Should I Season My Burger? – Every burger needs a shower of salt. But if you let it rain down on your patties an hour or two before you’re ready to grill, the salt will start unraveling the proteins in the meat and drawing out its moisture, which makes those Instagram-friendly sear marks hard to achieve. The trick is waiting for the last minute to season with salt (and pepper, if you like). Right before you throw the patties onto the grill, give them a quick sprinkling of both on both sides (coarse sea salt if you have it) to get a fantastic crust on the outside – the crust isn’t as good if you cook first and then salt afterwards.

How Hot Should the Grill Be? – Raging hot, but not for the entire cooking time. The intense heat of a grill creates a deeply browned crust, one of the hallmarks of a great burger. Surface browning begins to occur around 250°F, when the meat’s sugar and protein react with each other, forming an unstable structure, which then breaks down into hundreds of flavorful compounds that make the meat taste more savory, caramelized, and delicious. (KHT Trivia – these browning reactions are known as Maillard reactions, named after Louis-Camille Maillard, the French chemist who discovered them.) The higher the heat, the more intense the browning reactions, and the more complex the flavor.

But if left over the high heat for too long, a burger’s crust can go from browned to burnt. To prevent this, set up your grill with both high-heat and low-heat zones. Start by grilling burgers over the high-heat zone to create deep surface browning, and then move them to the low-heat zone to finish cooking, a strategy known as indirect grilling. Also, be sure to preheat the grill for at least 15 minutes, brush the grate clean, and lubricate it with an oil-soaked paper towel just before adding the burgers. (a grill grate caked with carbonized residue doesn’t make grilled food taste better—it only slows down the heat transfer, inhibiting deep grill marks and surface browning on your burgers.)

How Do I Know When a Burger Is Done? – There are lots of visual cues, but a thermometer is the most reliable gauge of doneness. As meat heats, its protein becomes drier, less translucent, browner, and firmer. The meat also shrinks, partially from moisture loss but also because fat melts and drips away, and the protein fibers become smaller as they firm up. The hotter and more cooked the meat gets, the more these physical changes manifest themselves. A rare burger (120°F to 125°F) will be running with juice, bright red in the center, and fairly soft to the touch. The same burger at well done (160°F or hotter) will be smaller, drier, brown throughout, and very tough. To take a burger’s internal temperature, insert an instant-read thermometer through its side to ensure that the thermometer’s probe has enough contact with the interior to register accurately.

I Want More Than a Perfect Patty. I Want Melted Cheese and A Toasted Bun. But How? – While you certainly don’t want to add a slice of cheese to a burger right when you start grilling, you might not get the right amount of melt if you add the cheese too late. The perfect timing? Add sliced cheese right after you’ve flipped the patties. The rising heat from the grill will melt the cheese, and if you’re using American cheese, it’ll ooze into the patty. About a minute before you’re ready to take those burgers off the grill, throw the buns on the grates, cut-side down, to get a little toastiness. The cheese will achieve the perfect level of ooze as the burgers rest on perfectly toasted buns.

After that, all you need to do is slide a leaf of lettuce underneath the patty (to prevent juices from seeping into the bottom bun), a slice of tomato on top (and maybe a squirt of ketchup and mustard), and you’ve got the most well-designed burger of the summer.

What About Food Safety? – Although you might like your burgers rare, there are safety factors to consider. All of the harmful bacteria on a solid piece of meat are on its surface. During grinding, the surface and interior are mixed together, causing any bacteria to become dispersed throughout the batch. This is why it is not advisable to eat any ground meat product that is not cooked to at least 145°F (harmful bacteria are destroyed at 140°F). The United States Department of Agriculture recommends 160°F to ensure that all areas of the food have reached a temperature of 140°F or higher, but we’ve found that at that temperature all of the moisture is gone as well. We prefer to stop cooking beef burgers when they reach 150°F (medium well). At this temperature, the meat will be slightly pink in the center and still relatively juicy.  The meat will continue to cook a bit once removed, so tenting with foils helps complete the grilling cycle and keep them warm just before serving.

What’s The Best Toppings? – this is a topic for great debate (and likely a KHT article later this year). Email me your favorites –  Experiment and enjoy!




Summer Traditions

food 768 blog


Reflecting on my 4th of July break, I’ve been thinking this week about all our great summer traditions – and, of course for me, that includes food. As I’m sure you can agree, those recipes we pull out in summertime, handed down from generation to generation, always seem so special. I think every family has them – special barbecue sauce or dry rub, summer salads, and desserts (yum!). Sometimes just the mention of them gets your taste buds going.

I asked my crew at work (and at home) to pull some of their favorites so I can share with our readers. When I asked my wife Jackie, she immediately said, “I’ll get one of your favorites, Calico Beans” – a simple recipe that slow cooks throughout the day filling the house with a great aroma, and compliments just about anything we throw on the grill. My preference is serving it with barbeque chicken, brats and potato salad. Give it a try.


Calico Beans

  • 1 lb pork sausage cooked
  • 2 medium onions chopped
  • 1 can each (16oz)
  • Drained green beans
  • Drained wax beans
  • Kidney beans with liquid
  • 1 can tomato soup
  • 6 oz tomato paste
  • 2 Tbs mustard
  • ¾ cup brown sugar

Mix all ingredients together and heat in a crock pot on low for 4-6 hours.


If you have a favorite, shoot me an email and share – I’ll collect ‘em and share
with our readers.





In their own words

Declaration of Independence 768 blog

(top left) Franklin, Adams, and Jefferson working on the Declaration (Jean Leon Gerome Ferris, 1900); (top center) depiction of the original United States Flag with 13 stars; (top right)  William Whipple, signer of the Declaration of Independence, freed his slave believing he could not both fight for liberty and own a slave. by Walter Gilman Page, 1897;  (center left) John Hancock by John Singleton Copley (American, 1738–1815); (center right) The declaration of Independence. Download a readable high resolution image HERE; (center bottom) John Hancock’s John Hancock; (center far right) Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the Declaration; (bottom) John Trumbull’s famous painting is often identified as a depiction of the signing of the Declaration, but it actually shows the drafting committee presenting its work to the Congress.


Our founders hammered out the words on the Declaration of Independence justifying our separation from the English Crown (King George III) and setting in motion a more just system of governing. I will comment no further except to say, be sure to never forget the second sentence: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

Please, take the time to read on and remember that we are blessed to live in the most wonderful country on earth!

Happy Independence Day to you all!


IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

  • He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
  • He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended,
  • he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
  • He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
  • He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
  • He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
  • He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
  • He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
  • He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
  • He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
  • He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
  • He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
  • He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
  • He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
  • For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
  • For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
  • For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
  • For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
  • For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
  • For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
  • For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
  • For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
  • For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
  • He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
  • He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
  • He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
  • He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
  • He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.


The 56 signatures on the Declaration appear in the positions indicated:

Column 1
Button Gwinnett
Lyman Hall
George Walton

Column 2
North Carolina:
William Hooper
Joseph Hewes
John Penn
South Carolina:
Edward Rutledge
Thomas Heyward, Jr.
Thomas Lynch, Jr.
Arthur Middleton

Column 3
John Hancock
Samuel Chase
William Paca
Thomas Stone
Charles Carroll of Carrollton
George Wythe
Richard Henry Lee
Thomas Jefferson
Benjamin Harrison
Thomas Nelson, Jr.
Francis Lightfoot Lee
Carter Braxton

Column 4
Robert Morris
Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Franklin
John Morton
George Clymer
James Smith
George Taylor
James Wilson
George Ross
Caesar Rodney
George Read
Thomas McKean

Column 5
New York:
William Floyd
Philip Livingston
Francis Lewis
Lewis Morris
New Jersey:
Richard Stockton
John Witherspoon
Francis Hopkinson
John Hart
Abraham Clark

Column 6
New Hampshire:
Josiah Bartlett
William Whipple
Samuel Adams
John Adams
Robert Treat Paine
Elbridge Gerry
Rhode Island:
Stephen Hopkins
William Ellery
Roger Sherman
Samuel Huntington
William Williams
Oliver Wolcott
New Hampshire:
Matthew Thornton