Enjoy the Heat – Spring Is In the Air In Northeast Ohio

Cleveland & Flowers 768 BLOG

After a long cold winter, we at Kowalski Heat Treating are heading out to enjoy the warmth of spring, filled with all kinds of North Coast events, festivals, sports and more. Here’s a short list of some of our “don’t miss” favorites:

1. Hessler Street Fair at CWRU
2. North Coast Harbor Block Party
3. Earth Fest at Cuyahoga County Fair Grounds
4. 86th Annual Geauga Maple Festival
5. The Cleveland Indians at Progressive Field
6. British Drawings at the Cleveland Museum of Art
7. The Cleveland International Film Festival
8. The Cleveland Asian Festival
9. Tri C Jazz Festival
10. Lebron & the Cavs at Quicken Loans Arena
11. Preschool Safari at the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
12. Third Fridays at 78th Street Studios
13. Saturdays at The Cleveland Flea
14. Thursday Nights at Edgewater Live
15. Glass House Explorations at the Cleveland Botanical Gardens
16. K-Love the Octopus at Cleveland Aquarium
17. #1 Best Beer City in America Conde Nast Traveler
18. New Urban farmer and Crop Kitchen restaurants
19. Farm and Art Market at BAYarts
20. Chagrin Valley Hunter Jumper Classic Horse Show




The techs at Kowalski Heat Treating have a lot in common with the golfers at the Masters.

ball on tee club BLOG 768

They both excel at PIA (Pain In The @%$) jobs! Have you seen #11 at Augusta?


And in case you get hungry (like I do) while watching the action: sandwich email 560



Hardness vs. Strength and a Salute to Rockwell

Rockwell 1914 Patent LR

The relationship of hardness and strength is common in the distortion sensitive thermal processing jobs here at Kowalski Heat Treating, where we’re always trying to solve customer part performance requirements, especially their PIA (Pain in the @%$) Jobs!

For some of our customers, the words hardness and strength are often used interchangeably. However, when used as metallurgical terms to describe properties, the meanings are different and in some cases may even be complete opposites.

The strength of a material is directly related to the hardness and is independent of the grade. For example, if you have S7 at 48 HRC and H13 at 48 HRC they will have similar ultimate tensile strengths. The yield strength which is the stress that begins to cause permanent deformation is going to be approximately 80-95% of the tensile strength for the most tool steels. A less ductile material will have its yield strength closer to its tensile strength due to the lack of elongation and reduction of area during the tensile test. The relationship to hardness and tensile strength can be found in heat treat or mechanical strength reference books.

For us, the challenge is the delicate balance of hardness and strength, and the need to be consistent piece after piece, load after load, and delivery after delivery – the “magic and value” behind KHT Heat.

About 100 years ago, Stanley Rockwell, born in New Britain, CT in 1886, worked as a testing engineer and metallurgist for the New Departure manufacturing company in Bristol, CT., making ball bearings, automobiles and its best known product, the coaster bicycle brake some of us used when we were kids. While at the company, Stanley worked with Hugh Rockwell (no relation) an avid aviator and automobile enthusiast. The two spent a lot of their time trying to determine the best and most efficient way to measure the hardness of bearing races. The only tests at the time were Vickers (time consuming), Brinell (slow and not suitable for curved surfaces or small parts), Scleroscope (ok for hardened bearing steel but cumbersome to use) and the file test (useful only as a go/no go test at best).

To satisfy their needs, Stanley and Hugh invented the Rockwell Hardness Tester method, a simple sequence of major and minor load testing, enabling the user to perform an accurate hardness test on a variety of different sized parts in just a few seconds. The process proved to be useful, and in 1914 they filed for a patent (granted on February 11, 1919 after the Rockwell’s had left the company).

In the original patent application, they wrote: “We have devised a hardness tester which can be used by the ordinary workman to rapidly and accurately test the hardness not only of flat surfaces but also of raceways and other curved surfaced bodies.”

After leaving New Departure during WW1, Stanley served as a captain in the Army ordinance department and after the war became the works manager and metallurgist of the Weeks and Hoffman Co. in Syracuse, NY, where he improved the tester and applied for a second patent in Sept 1919. In 1923, he opened his own business called the New England Heat Treating Service Company – the name was later changed to the Stanley P. Rockwell Company in and still exists today.

Today, Rockwell Testing remains the most efficient and widely used hardness test thanks to the insights and efforts of Hugh and Stanley Rockwell, creative engineers always looking for practical solutions to problems.




We’re taking this time to bask in the warmth of family and faith. We hope you’re able to to the same.

Forest-Bluebells BLOG 768

See you next week!

Spring is Here and We’re Doing Our Part

LakeErie + KHT blog 768

Image: Courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

You may be aware that Kowalski Heat Treating is all about helping with those PIA (Pain In The @%$) Jobs. And this one’s a doozie.

Every year we do our part to help thaw the Lake and melt the ice by funneling our excess heat north across the lake from our marvelous plant location on the North Coast … and based on current satellite images – it’s working!!

We’ll keep you posted on progress, but weather experts predict in about a month or so, we should be seeing blue lake waters sparkling in the sun outside our window. Oh, yea.



Did you see this?

solar eclipse blog 768

Above: Actual shot of the total solar eclipse seen from Svalbard, Norway March 20, 2015.  Photograph- Haakon Mosvold Larsen-AP

As you know, I love anything to do with heat. And there’s nothing hotter than the sun. Tiosgenphyroheal And also, as you may know, I’m always up way before the birds. So, before I left for work this morning I watched the feed online.

Planet Earth’s only total eclipse of the sun this year was this morning and best viewed from a windowed sauna in Svalbard, Norway.

 The Kowalski clan (I had to wake my family for this and, yes, they think I’m obsessed) and the rest of us in the USA were watching the eclipse online starting at 4:30 a.m. ET this morning on Slooh.com. (go there for the replay) Of course we wore eye protection from the plant.  🙂


earth shadow blog 768

And this is what a #SolarEclipse looks like from space. Courtesy NASA.



O’Kowalski Family History

Eight things you probably didn’t know about Cleveland’s premier heat treating family.

corned beef cabbage BLOG
St. Patrick’s Day will be celebrated next Tuesday around the world. Here in Cleveland, we too celebrate our Irish heritage and culture and the oft forgotten legends of the O’Kowalski’s and the role we’ve played throughout the centuries.

The Earls of Rosse, in Ireland were great inventors and studied things such as photography, engineering and other marvels. Most famous, however, is the Rosse Telescope, which was built in the 1800s by one of the Earls and held the record for largest telescope in the entire world for the better part of a century. The telescope had a reflector that was 72 inches in diameter, supported by tempered metal framing heat treated by Shamus O’Kowalski. Said Shamus, ‘ey – it was a real PIA (pain in the %@$) job, and we were glad we could help.”

Feast Day – St. Patrick’s Day is much more solemn in Ireland thanks to Uncle Murphy O’Kowalski. A heat treater by trade, Murphy skipped all the frivolity at the local pubs, and concentrated on his favorite hobby – cooking, where he taught the locals how to heat salted water and boil their food. “put it all in at once,” cried Murphy, “she’ll cook down nice for supper.” To this day, the O’Kowalski family gets together on holidays and reminisces about Uncle Murphy and cookin’ ‘em potatoes.

An Irishman designed the White House – In 1792 George Washington and Thomas Jefferson organized a competition to decide who would build the domicile of the President, and the man who won was an Irishman named James Hoban, not only born in Ireland, but he also studied architecture in his homeland as well. Not only did he design it, but he also built it, with the help of his best friend and fellow architect Kathleen O’Malley O’Kowalski – and more than once. After the White House was destroyed in 1814, Hoban, tired of the project asked dear Kathleen to build it all over again. Famous for her favorite sayin’ – “come on boys, let’s git ‘er done” she helped build what we enjoy today.

St. Patrick’s clearing of the Emerald Isle of snakes isn’t true – The legend says that St. Patrick cleared the Emerald isle of snakes; this has become such a widely popularized myth that it is believed by nearly everyone. It is also, completely untrue. The truth is the snakes were cleared decades before St. Patrick by the O’Kowalski’s. “It took some doin’, said Micheal O’Kowalski, but we finished the job, just like we always do.”

The Irish may have discovered America first – Some say Christopher Columbus was the first to discover America, as the poem goes “in 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue”. Some suggest that the first to discover America were the Vikings, or even the Chinese. According to legend, an Irish monk called St. Brendan O’Kowalski set out on an expedition to find paradise and after seven years discovered an island that was so large that even after forty days they could not reach the far shore. The monks returned home with the news much earlier than many of the other first discoveries of America.

St. Patrick was not actually Irish – St. Patrick, despite popular belief, was not actually Irish. St. Patrick was the son of Romans who were living in Britain, legend says he was kidnapped and taken as a slave to the Emerald Isle where he helped herd sheep. However, he actually went to Ireland of his own accord and sold heat treating so that he wouldn’t have to be drafted into a job as a tax collector.

The Reuben – nothing says Irish more than the sandwich Reuben, but where did it originate? History tells us of a small boy named Reuben O’Kowalski. Always up for mischief, he said to his Mum one day – “its kind of dry, can you put some cabbage on it.” She did, and slid it into the O’Kowalski Heat Treating oven, only to come out crispy and tasty. And the rest is history.

reuben sandwich BLOG

Kiss the Stone Instead – in 1314, Robert the Bruce held a ceremony at the Blarney Castle to honor Cormac O’McKowalski (the predecessors to the O’Kowaslki clan today) for his valor in support of the Battle of Bannockburn. During the ceremony, Robert the Bruce heated is sword in the fire, and asked Cormac to knee and kiss it for good luck. “it’s a wee bit hot, me lord,” said Cormac. Toeroarowalfi Not wanting to disrupt the ceremony, Cormac proclaimed – “how about I just kiss the stone instead,” launching a tradition that holds true today.

Call me on Monday and share YOUR Irish heritage stories – and be sure to walk in the Cleveland Irish Festival Parade and salute all of us Irish. 


Daylight Saving Time

burning clock-Blog768

At Kowalski Heat treating, we’re always “on the clock”, watching over your jobs day and night. Like you, this weekend is when we will observe Daylight Saving Time (not “savings” time), which officially begins on Sunday, March 8, 2015, at 2:00am., until Sunday, November 1st, 2015, at 2:00am., when we shift our clocks back to what we call Standard Time (ST). But it’s not always been this way. Here’s some history and trivia for you to share with friends and family:

The idea of daylight saving was first conceived by Benjamin Franklin during his sojourn as an American delegate in Paris in 1784, in an essay, “An Economical Project.” Some of Franklin’s friends, inventors of a new kind of oil lamp, were so taken by the scheme that they continued corresponding with Franklin even after he returned to America. Said Franklin, in his zest to live by sunlight hours, “Every morning, as soon as the sun rises, let all the bells in every church be set ringing; and if that is not sufficient, let cannon be fired in every street, to wake the sluggards effectually, and make them open their eyes to see their true interest.”

Many years later, the idea was more seriously advocated by London builder William Willett (1857-1915) in the pamphlet, “Waste of Daylight” (1907) that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September. In his pamphlet he wrote: “Everyone appreciates the long, light evenings. Everyone laments their shortage as autumn approaches; and everyone has given utterance to regret that the clear, bright light of an early morning during Spring and Summer months is so seldom seen or used.”

Early Laws
About one year after Willett began to advocate daylight saving, and spending a fortune lobbying, he attracted the attention of the authorities. Robert Pearce – later Sir Robert Pearce – introduced a bill in the House of Commons to make it compulsory to adjust the clocks. The bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times, but was met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests. Generally lampooned at the time, Willett died on March 4, 1915.

Daylight Saving Time more formally began in the U.S. and in many European countries during World War I. At that time, in an effort to conserve fuel needed to produce electric power, Germany and Austria took time by the forelock, and began saving daylight at 11:00 p.m. on April 30, 1916, by advancing the hands of the clock one hour until the following October. Other countries such as Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, and Tasmania with Britain following suit three weeks later, on May 21, 1916. In 1917, Australia and Newfoundland began saving daylight.

The plan was not formally adopted in the U.S. until 1918. ‘An Act to preserve daylight and provide standard time for the United States’ was enacted on March 19, 1918. [See law] It both established standard time zones and set summer DST to begin on March 31, 1918. Daylight Saving Time was observed for seven months in 1918 and 1919. After the War ended, the law proved so unpopular (mostly because people rose earlier and went to bed earlier than people do today) that it was repealed in 1919 with a Congressional override of President Wilson’s veto. Daylight Saving Time became a local option, and was continued in a few states, such as Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and in some cities, such as New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago.

Energy Savings
After World War I, the British Parliament passed several acts relating to Summer Time. In 1925, a law was enacted that Summer Time should begin on the day following the third Saturday in April (or one week earlier if that day was Easter Day). The date for closing of Summer Time was fixed for the day after the first Saturday in October. The energy saving benefits of Summer Time were recognized during World War II, when clocks in Britain were put two hours ahead of GMT during the summer, and became known as Double Summer Time. During the war, clocks remained one hour ahead of GMT throughout the winter.

During World War II, President Franklin Roosevelt instituted year-round Daylight Saving Time, called “War Time,” from February 9, 1942 to September 30, 1945. [See law] From 1945 to 1966, there was no federal law regarding Daylight Saving Time, so states and localities were free to choose whether or not to observe Daylight Saving Time and could choose when it began and ended. This understandably caused confusion, especially for the broadcasting industry, as well as for railways, airlines, and bus companies. Because of the different local customs and laws, radio and TV stations and the transportation companies had to publish new schedules every time a state or town began or ended Daylight Saving Time.

Inconsistent use in the U.S.
In the early 1960s, observance of Daylight Saving Time was quite inconsistent, with a hodgepodge of time observances, and no agreement about when to change clocks. The Interstate Commerce Commission, the nation’s timekeeper, was immobilized, and the matter remained deadlocked. Many business interests were supportive of standardization, although it became a bitter fight between the indoor and outdoor theater industries. The farmers, however, were opposed to such uniformity. State and local governments were a mixed bag, depending on local conditions.

Efforts at standardization were encouraged by a transportation industry organization, the Committee for Time Uniformity. They surveyed the entire nation, through questioning telephone operators as to local time observances, and found the situation was quite confusing. Next, the Committee’s goal was a strong supportive story on the front page of the New York Times. Having rallied the general public’s support, the Time Uniformity Committee’s goal was accomplished, but only after discovering and disclosing that on the 35-mile stretch of highway (Route 2) between Moundsville, W.V., and Steubenville, Ohio, every bus driver and his passengers had to endure seven time changes!

The Uniform Time Act
By 1966, some 100 million Americans were observing Daylight Saving Time based on their local laws and customs. Congress decided to step in and end the confusion, and to establish one pattern across the country. The Uniform Time Act of 1966 [see law], signed into law on April 12, 1966, by President Lyndon Johnson, created Daylight Saving Time to begin on the last Sunday of April and to end on the last Sunday of October. Any State that wanted to be exempt from Daylight Saving Time could do so by passing a state law.

The Uniform Time Act of 1966 established a system of uniform (within each time zone) Daylight Saving Time throughout the U.S. and its possessions, exempting only those states in which the legislatures voted to keep the entire state on standard time. In 1972, Congress revised the law to provide that, if a state was in two or more time zones, the state could exempt the part of the state that was in one time zone while providing that the part of the state in a different time zone would observe Daylight Saving Time

On January 4, 1974, President Nixon signed into law the Emergency Daylight Saving Time Energy Conservation Act of 1973. Then, beginning on January 6, 1974, implementing the Daylight Saving Time Energy Act, clocks were set ahead. On October 5, 1974, Congress amended the Act, and Standard Time returned on October 27, 1974. Daylight Saving Time resumed on February 23, 1975 and ended on October 26, 1975.
Under legislation enacted in 1986, Daylight Saving Time in the U.S. began at 2:00 a.m. on the first Sunday of April and ended at 2:00 a.m. on the last Sunday of October.

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 extended Daylight Saving Time in the U.S. beginning in 2007, though Congress retained the right to revert to the 1986 law should the change prove unpopular or if energy savings are not significant. Going from 2007 forward, Daylight Saving Time in the U.S. begins at 2:00 a.m. on the second Sunday of March and ends at 2:00 a.m. on the first Sunday of November.

F U N   F A C T S
Chaos of Non-Uniform DST
Widespread confusion was created during the 1950s and 1960s when each U.S. locality could start and end Daylight Saving Time as it desired. One year, 23 different pairs of DST start and end dates were used in Iowa alone. For exactly five weeks each year, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia were not on the same time as Washington D.C., Cleveland, or Baltimore–but Chicago was. And, on one Ohio to West Virginia bus route, passengers had to change their watches seven times in 35 miles! The situation led to millions of dollars in costs to several industries, especially those involving transportation and communications. Extra railroad timetables alone cost the today’s equivalent of over $12 million per year.

Oil Conservation
Following the 1973 oil embargo, the U.S. Congress extended Daylight Saving Time to 8 months, rather than the normal six months. During that time, the U.S. Department of Transportation found that observing Daylight Saving Time in March and April saved the equivalent in energy of 10,000 barrels of oil each day – a total of 600,000 barrels in each of those two years. Likewise, in 1986, Daylight Saving Time moved from the last Sunday in April to the first Sunday in April. By adding the entire month of April to Daylight Saving Time is estimated to save the U.S. about 300,000 barrels of oil each year.

Radio Stations
AM radio signals propagate much further at night than during the day. During daytime, more stations in neighboring areas can broadcast on the same frequency without interfering with each other. Because of this situation, there are hundreds of stations licensed to operate only in the daytime affecting the bottom line of these daytime-only radio stations: during parts of the year it can cause the stations to lose their most profitable time of day–the morning drive time. The gain of an hour of daylight – and thus broadcast time – in the evening does not fully compensate for the morning loss.

To keep to their published timetables, trains cannot leave a station before the scheduled time. So, when the clocks fall back one hour in October, all Amtrak trains in the U.S. that are running on time stop at 2:00 a.m. and wait one hour before resuming. Overnight passengers are often surprised to find their train at a dead stop and their travel time an hour longer than expected. At the spring Daylight Saving Time change, trains instantaneously become an hour behind schedule at 2:00 a.m., but they just keep going and do their best to make up the time.

In Antarctica, there is no daylight in the winter and months of 24-hour daylight in the summer. But many of the research stations there still observe Daylight Saving Time anyway, to synchronize with their supply stations in Chile or New Zealand.

Indiana has long been a hotbed of Daylight Saving Time controversy. Historically, the state’s two western corners, which fall in the Central Time Zone, observed DST, while the remainder of the state, in the Eastern Time zone, followed year-round Standard Time. An additional complication was that five southeastern counties near Cincinnati and Louisville unofficially observed DST to keep in sync with those cities. Because of the longstanding feuds over DST, Indiana politicians often treated the subject gingerly. In 1996, gubernatorial candidate Rex Early firmly declared, “Some of my friends are for putting all of Indiana on Daylight Saving Time. Some are against it. And I always try to support my friends

Births and Birthdays
While twins born at 11:55 p.m. and 12:05 a.m. may have different birthdays, Daylight Saving Time can change birth order — on paper, anyway. During the time change in the fall, one baby could be born at 1:55 a.m. and the sibling born ten minutes later, at 1:05 a.m. In the spring, there is a gap when no babies are born at all: from 2:00 a.m. to 3:00 a.m. In November 2007, Laura Cirioli of North Carolina gave birth to Peter at 1:32 a.m. and, 34 minutes later, to Allison. However, because Daylight Saving Time reverted to Standard Time at 2:00 a.m., Allison was born at 1:06 a.m.

Bombing Thwarted
In September 1999, the West Bank was on Daylight Saving Time while Israel had just switched back to standard time. West Bank terrorists prepared time bombs and smuggled them to their Israeli counterparts, who misunderstood the time on the bombs. As the bombs were being planted, they exploded–one hour too early–killing three terrorists instead of the intended victims–two busloads of people.

Halloween Trick-or-Treaters
In 2007, a new law to extend DST to the first Sunday in November took effect, with the purpose of providing trick-or-treaters more light and therefore more safety from traffic accidents. For decades, candy manufacturers lobbied for a Daylight Saving Time extension to Halloween, as many of the young trick-or-treaters gathering candy are not allowed out after dark, and thus an added hour of light means a big holiday treat for the candy industry. Anecdotally, the 2007 switch may not have had much effect, as it appeared that children simply waited until dark to go trick-or-treating.

Voter Turnout in Elections
Through 2006, the Daylight Saving Time period has closed on the last Sunday in October, about a week before Election Day, which is held the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The extension of Daylight Saving Time into November has been proposed as a way to encourage greater voter participation, the theory being that more people would go to the polls if it was still light when they returned home from work. The U.S. law taking effect in 2007 pushes the end of Daylight Saving Time to the first Sunday in November. In some years (2010, 2021, 2027, and 2032), this will fall after Election Day, giving researchers the opportunity to gauge its effect on voter turnout.

Violent Crime
A study by the U.S. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration found that crime was consistently less during periods of Daylight Saving Time than during comparable standard time periods. Data showed violent crime down 10 to 13 percent. It is clear that for most crimes where darkness is a factor, such as muggings, there are many more incidents after dusk than before dawn, so light in the evening is most welcome.

Further Reading
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Content – WebExhibits.org


Hottest Chili in the world Recipe: Habanero Hellfire Chili

chili images for blog r2

Anyone who knows me even a little knows I like to eat. And eat big. Anyhow, I wanted to share this recipe I found over at allrecipes.com in case anyone wants to try it out. I’m going to make it sometime soon. Not sure when, been busy putting out fires. (pun intended) So if any of you get to it before I do, let me know how you and your friends like it.

Here’s the link to the recipe and more pictures: CLICK HERE

And here’s the recipe by Edd Ryan if you want to get started now:

“Tasty chili whose name says it all! Note: Whole Anaheim peppers are not widely available; this ingredient is optional, and you can use hot pepper sauce instead.” —Edd

Original recipe makes 8 servingsChange Servings
1/2 pound bacon
1 pound ground round
1 pound ground pork
1 green bell pepper, diced
1 yellow onion, diced
6 jalapeno peppers, seeded and chopped
6 habanero peppers, seeded and chopped
8 Anaheim peppers, seeded and diced
2 cloves garlic, minced
1 1/2 tablespoons ground cumin
1 tablespoon crushed red pepper flakes
3 tablespoons chili powder
2 tablespoons beef bouillon granules
1 (28 ounce) can crushed tomatoes
2 (16 ounce) cans whole peeled tomatoes, drained
2 (16 ounce) cans chili beans, drained
1 (12 fluid ounce) can beer
3 ounces tomato paste
1 ounce chile paste
2 cups water

Place bacon in a large soup pot. Cook over medium high heat until evenly brown. Drain excess grease, leaving enough to coat bottom of pot Remove bacon, drain on paper towels and chop.

Brown beef and pork in pot over medium high heat. When meat is browned, stir in the bell pepper, onion, jalapeno peppers, habanero peppers, Anaheim peppers, garlic, cumin, red pepper flakes, chili powder, bouillon, crushed tomatoes, whole tomatoes, beer, tomato paste, chile paste and water.

Reduce heat to low and simmer for 45 to 60 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add beans and bacon and continue simmering for another 30 minutes.

Chili Trivia

  • A green chili pod has as much vitamin C as six oranges
  • Some cultures put chili powder in their shoes to keep their feet warm
  • The first chili cook-off took place in 1967 in Terlinga, Texas, a border town about 400 miles west of chili’s alleged birthplace, San Antonio. It ended in a tie between a native Texan and a New Yorker, but chili cook-offs are still held there today
  • Hot chili peppers burn calories by triggering a thermodynamic burn in the body, which speeds up the metabolism
  • Chili pepper color is a function of ripeness. Green peppers are usually not fully ripe and the same pepper could be green, yellow, orange, or red depending on its level of ripeness
  • The first documented recipe for chili con carne is dated September 2, 1519, according to Wikipedia
  • Chili is good to eat on cold days, especially with cheese and onions – Yum!

Compliments of nationalchiliday.com